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Buhen
(2155' N 3117'E)

Archaeological site in modern Sudan. In the Old Kingdom (about 2686-2181 BC) it was the site of a small settlement, perhaps a trading post and place for copper working. The finds suggest that mainly Egyptians lived here, although some Nubian pottery was also found. In the Middle Kingdom (about 2025-1700 BC) the Egyptians built a huge fortress at the site, with a temple of Horus. The place was still important in the Second Intermediate Period, when it became part of the realm of the rulers of Kush (probably Kerma). On reconquering the region the Egyptians rebuilt the temple and fortress in the New Kingdom (about 1550-1069 BC).

plan of Buhen in the Old Kingdom | a smelting kiln for copper | the name Buhen | New Kingdom wine labels

the finds from the Old Kingdom (about 2686-2181 BC)
(click on the pictures below to see a gallery of representative finds of each category)

Egyptian pottery
Nubian pottery
seal impressions
flint tools
Buhen in the Middle Kingdom
Finds from the New Kingdom
UC 20056 UC 20342 UC 21903
UC 19797
UC 19625

Bibliography on Buhen in the Old Kingdom:

  • El Gayar/Jones 1989 (on the origin of copper in the town)
  • Emery 1963 (the preliminary excavation report)
  • Gratien 1995 (on the Nubian pottery found at Buhen)
  • Kaplony 1977 (on seals of the Old Kingdom; including discussion and publication of the seal impressions found at Buhen)

 

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